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Cirrhosis

Posted on  December 4, 2021  by  Kenan


Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis is a late stage of liver scarring (fibrosis) caused by a variety of diseases and disorders, including hepatitis and untreated alcoholism. When the liver is damaged, whether by cancer, too much drink, or something else, it attempts to heal itself. Scar tissue develops as a result of this process. Cirrhosis causes scar tissue to develop, which makes it harder for the liver to survive (decompensated cirrhosis).

Cirrhosis in its advanced stages can be fatal. Cirrhosis causes liver damage that cannot be reversed. Further damage may be reduced and, in rare cases, removed if liver cirrhosis is detected early and the cause is treated. Symptoms The pop-up dialogue box for liver Cirrhosis sometimes has no effects until the liver has been severely damaged.

When signs and symptoms do appear, these may include the following:

• Tiredness

• Bruising or bleeding easily 

• Loss of appetite 

• Nausea 

• Swelling of the thighs, feet, or ankles (edema)

• Lack of weight 

• Itchy eyes

• Jaundice (yellow discoloration of the face and eyes) 

• Ascites (fluid retention of the abdomen) 

Causes

• Chronic substance dependence and chronic viral hepatitis are two of the most common causes (hepatitis B, C, and D)

• fat build-up in the liver (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease)

• The accumulation of iron in the body (hemochromatosis)

• Copper accumulation in the liver (Wilson's disease)

• Cystic fibrosis

• Biliary atresia (abnormally developed bile ducts)

• Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

• Inherited sugar metabolism disorders (galactosemia or glycogen storage disease)

Cirrhosis can be caused by a variety of diseases and disorders that affect the liver.

• Hands are reddened in the fingertips.

• Genetic digestive disorder (Alagille syndrome)

• Liver disease caused by the immune system of the body (autoimmune hepatitis)

• The bile ducts are destroyed (primary biliary cirrhosis)

• Primary sclerosing cholangitis (hardening and scarring of the bile ducts)

• Infections such as syphilis or brucellosis

• Medications such as methotrexate or isoniazid

• Hands are reddened in the fingertips.

Risk factors

1. Imbibing excessive amounts of alcohol. Cirrhosis is linked to excessive alcohol intake.

2. Being overweight or obese. Obesity raises the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, all of which can lead to cirrhosis.

3. Hepatitis caused by a virus. Cirrhosis does not occur in anyone with chronic hepatitis, but it is one of the most common forms of liver disease worldwide.

Complications

Complications of cirrhosis can include:

• Diabetes in the vessels that feed the liver (portal hypertension). Cirrhosis reduces the regular flow of blood into the liver, raising pressure on the vein that carries blood from the intestines and spleen to the liver.

• Thighs and belly swell. Fluid can pool in the legs (edema) and the abdomen due to elevated pressure in the portal vein (ascites). Edema and ascites can also be caused by the liver's failure to produce adequate blood proteins, such as albumin.

• Splenic enlargement is a condition in which the spleen becomes larger (splenomegaly). Swelling and modifications to the spleen, as well as the trapping of white blood cells and platelets, are all possible side effects of portal hypertension. 

• Blood can be diverted to narrower veins as a result of portal hypertension. These smaller veins will burst if they are suffocated by the increased pressure, causing severe bleeding. Portal hypertension can lead to life-threatening bleeding through enlarging veins (varices) in the esophagus (esophageal varices) or the stomach (gastric varices). Continued bleeding may also be caused by the liver's inability to provide adequate clotting factors.

• Infections are a concern. Cirrhosis can make it harder for the body to combat infections. Bacterial peritonitis, a dangerous infection, may be caused by ascites.

• Undernourishment. Cirrhosis can make it impossible for the body to absorb nutrients, resulting in fatigue and wretchedness.

• Buildup of toxins in the brain (hepatic encephalopathy). Cirrhosis damages the liver, which makes it unable to remove toxins from the blood as well as a healthy liver. Toxins can build up in the brain, causing behavioral instability and concentration problems. Hepatic encephalopathy can lead to unresponsiveness or coma over time.

• Yellowing of the skin. When your diseased liver doesn't extract enough bilirubin, a blood waste substance, from your blood, you get jaundice. Jaundice allows the skin and whites of the eyes to turn black, and the urine to darken.

• Bone problems. Cirrhosis causes some people to lose bone integrity, putting them at risk for fractures.

• There's a higher chance of getting liver cancer. Cirrhosis is present in a significant percentage of people who experience liver cancer.

Prevention Take these measures to protect the liver and lower your chance of cirrhosis:

• If you have cirrhosis, don't take alcohol. Alcohol can be avoided if you have liver disease.

• Eat a balanced diet. Go for a plant-based diet rich in fruits and vegetables. Choose whole grains and lean protein sources. Reduce the intake of processed and fried foods.

• Keep a good weight. Your liver will be harmed by having so much body fat. If you are obese or overweight, talk to the doctor for a weight-loss diet.

• Lower the hepatitis infection. Hepatitis B and C are spread by sharing needles and having unprotected intercourse. Inquire about the hepatitis vaccine with your specialist.

• If you're concerned about your risk of liver cirrhosis, talk to your doctor about ways you can reduce your risk

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