Two bean-shaped glands, each about the size of a hand, make up the kidneys. They can be found on either side of the spine in the back. Urine is produced by healthy kidneys to remove waste products from the blood. They also make hormones that regulate blood pressure and red blood cells, as well as balance the volume of those elements in your blood (such as sodium, potassium, and calcium).

What is Kidney Failure :

Kidney (renal) failure occurs when the kidneys do not function properly. The term "kidney failure" encompasses a wide range of issues. Kidney failure will occur as a result of these issues:

  • Your kidneys are unable to filter enough blood.
  • A disease such as a kidney failure can damage the kidneys.
  • an elevated blood sugar level (diabetes)high blood pressure
  • glomerulonephritis (damage to the kidney's tiny filters)
  • polycystic kidney disease
  • Your kidney is blocked by a kidney stone or scar tissue


The signs vary depending on the severity of the kidney disease, how rapidly it is progressing, and what is causing it. Acute (sudden) and chronic kidney (renal) failure are the two major forms of the kidney (renal) failure (over time). Acute Renal Failure (ARF) is a term that refers to a condition in which the kidneys When the kidneys avoid removing waste products from the blood, ARF develops.

ARF symptoms include:

• The hands, feet, and face are swollen (edema)

• external bruising

• bafflement

• convulsions

• a sleep

• blood and urinary samples that are rare

• blood pressure that is too high

Chronic Renal Failure – CRF

CRF develops gradually, with few symptoms in the early stages. CRF patients may not show any signs until their kidney function drops to 20% or less. These signals can occur at that time:

• blood and urinary samples that are rare

• blood pressure that is too high

• Weight loss with no apparent cause

• Nausea, vomiting, a metallic taste in the mouth, lack of appetite, shortness of breath, chest pains, numbness and tingling, confusion, and paralysis are all symptoms of anemia.

• Seizures, easy bruising, itching, weakness, headaches, muscle twitches and cramps, brittle bones that crack quickly, yellow-brown skin color, itching, swelling of the wrists, feet, and face (edema), and difficulty sleeping are all symptoms of epilepsy.


Causes Low blood pressure is the most common cause of ARF (such as after complicated surgery or an accident) Kidney swelling is a condition in which the kidneys swell (such as a reaction to a drug or infection) an unexpected obstruction (such as by a kidney stone) blood pressure that is very strong Since the source of ARF is treated, the kidney also returns to normal or near normal. Chronic renal failure (CRF) is the lack of kidney function for the rest of one's life.

The following are the most important causes:

• blood pressure that is too high

• glomerulonephritis (chronic glomerulonephritis) (kidney damage)

• an elevated blood sugar level (diabetes)

• polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a disease that affects the kidneys.

• urinary tract obstruction

• Infection of the kidneys Diagnosis A blood test called a "creatinine dose" is used to diagnose kidney failure. Creatinine is a molecule produced by the muscles. Extra creatinine in the bloodstream is removed by the kidneys and excreted in the urine.

A higher level of creatinine in the blood indicates that the kidneys aren't washing the blood as well as they should be. This test will detect a problem before a patient with kidney disease becomes ill. Treatment To treat ARF, you must first address the underlying cause (such as blood pressure that is too high or too low, a kidney stone, or high blood sugar). You can require dialysis for a limited period of time.

Treatment of the underlying cause of CRF (such as elevated blood pressure and/or high blood sugar) may help to delay the progression of the disease. End-stage kidney failure may be caused by CRF. Dialysis or a kidney transplant is most commonly required when kidney function declines below 10% of normal, particularly if you have symptoms of uremia (an accumulation of waste in the blood), such as nausea and itching.

Dialysis Hemodialysis:

A tube (catheter) is inserted into one of the veins of your throat, arm, or leg for hemodialysis. Hemodialysis is usually performed three days a week for three to four hours per day. Peritoneal dialysis is performed by a tube that is indefinitely implanted in the abdomen. The majority of adults receive dialysis at an outpatient hemodialysis center. Peritoneal dialysis is performed at home for the majority of children.

Transplantation of the Kidney.

A kidney transplant is where a surgeon replaces your kidney with a healthy one from another human. Most patients with end-stage kidney disease benefit from a kidney transplant. People who have decided to donate their kidneys as they die (deceased donors) or well people donate kidneys for transplant (living donors). The majority of living donors are relatives of the patient's family. A transplant from a live donor has a reduced wait period before surgery. (This is due to a long waiting period for kidneys from dead donors, as well as a scarcity of donors.)

Furthermore, patients who receive kidneys from living donors live longer (and their kidneys survive longer) than those who receive kidneys from deceased donors or who rely solely on dialysis. To get a decent outcome, the live kidney donor doesn't have to be a blood relative now, thanks to new medical techniques. In the United States, almost 90,000 people are on the waiting list for a deceased organ kidney transplant. However, owing to a scarcity of donated kidneys, only 10,000 deceased organ kidney transplants are performed each year. Per year, 6,000 kidney transplants are performed on live donors.

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